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Participants will carry out two practicals among the more than 20 laboratory courses on the application sciences, etc. in the SPring-8 facilities.

1. BL01B1:BL01B1_TEXT
XAFS Measurement of Dilute Samples or Thin Films
Tomoya Uruga and Hajime Tanida (JASRI/SPring-8)

The bending magnet beamline, BL01B1, is used for various applications of XAFS over a wide energy range from 3.8 to 113 keV. In the practical training course, we plan to show how to measure XAFS of dilute samples or thin films, which covers alignment of X-ray optics, alignment of sample position, and adjustment of a 19-element Ge solid-state detector. We will also demonstrate Quick XAFS measurement in transmission mode for standard samples.

2. BL02B1: BL02B1_TEXT
Polarization Analysis
Masaichiro Mizumaki (JASRI/SPring-8)

X-ray polarization is nothing but a correction factor for crystal structure analysis. But, in some cases, polarization of the scattered X-ray includes significant information about electronic degrees of freedom. In this course students will practice experimental operation and analysis procedure of polarization analysis using an analyzer of a single crystal. This experience holds clues for resonant x-ray scattering and x-ray magnetic scattering experiments.

3. BL02B2: BL02B2_TEXT
Practical Training for Powder Diffraction Experiment at BL02B2
Jungeun Kim (JASRI/SPring-8)

The high-energy and high-brilliance synchrotron X-ray at SPring-8 allows materials scientists to unravel the structure-property relationship with electron distribution resolution using powder diffractometry. In the present training, we are planning to offer practical technique in the optical alignment, the sample preparation and the measurement procedure for the synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction experiment. If time permits, the fully automatic measurement system with a sample changer and an image recognition system will be shown.

4. BL04B1: BL04B1_TEXT
In situ Observation of High Pressure Phase Change of Simple Material
Kenichi Funakoshi and Yuji Higo (JASRI/SPring-8)

The BL04B1 beamline is designed for conducting researches on the structures and physical properties under high-pressure. In the practice, we observe the high-pressure phase change of KCl using a large-volume multianvil device and an energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction. KCl is a well-known crystal which is reversibly-transformed from B1 to B2 phase with pressure. Precise phase boundary and lattice constants of KCl are determined from in situ X-ray diffraction analysis.

5. BL04B2: BL04B2_TEXT
Disordered Structure Probed by High-energy X-ray Diffraction Technique
Shinji Kohara (JASRI/SPring-8)

High-brilliance and high-energy X-rays are one of biggest advantages of SPring-8. The use of high-energy X-rays allows us to measure diffraction patterns up to high-reciprocal space in a transmission geometry with small scattering angles and small correction terms, which provides more detailed and reliable structural information of disordered materials (glass, liquid, and amorphous materials) than has hitherto been available. In this school, we would like to focus on the structural analysis of disordered materials by the diffraction measurement. We will introduce how we can obtain a reliable diffraction data for disordered materials and how we can analyze the data. Furthermore we will try structural modelling of disordered materials based on diffraction data employing computer simulation technique.

6. BL08W: BL08W_TEXT
Fermi Surface and Electron Correlation Effects Probed by Compton Scattering
Yoshiharu Sakurai (JASRI/SPring-8)

This course provides an opportunity for able physics students to learn the practical details of Compton scattering and its primary application to the Fermiology of simple metals. Compton scattering is a newly developed technique to map out the Fermi surface (FS) and delineate the electron correlation effects through a measurement of the electron momentum density. The training begins with a brief introduction to Compton scattering and its techniques, followed by on-the-job trainings for spectrometer calibration, sample setting and data acquisition, with the samples of aluminum and vanadium. Aluminum is a simple metal with a free-electron-like FS and vanadium is a 3d-transition metal with complicated FS's. The goal is to directly see these FS signatures on the energy spectra of Compton scattered X-rays. In addition, short lectures are given during data accumulation. The topics are on the latest works on advanced materials, such as shape-memory alloys, metal hydrides, manganites and high-Tc cuprates.


Precise X-ray Diffraction Measurement under Hydrostatic Pressures in a Diamond Anvil Cell
Naohisa Hirao and Yasuo Ohishi (JASRI/SPring-8)

The undulator beamline BL10XU is dedicated for X-ray diffraction experiments at high pressure and low/high temperature using diamond anvil cells (DACs). The high-resolution monochromatic angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns obtained at BL10XU allow us to accurate structural analysis in crystals submitted to extreme pressures. To have a better understanding of high-pressure research using a combination of synchrotron radiation and a DAC technique through this BL practice course, in situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments will be carried out under hydrostatic conditions with a pressure transmitting medium of helium which enables to give us high-quality data.

Training for Surface X-ray Diffraction Measurements
Hiroo Tajiri and Osami Sakata (JASRI/SPring-8)

The aim of this training course is to give introduction for structural characterization of crystalline surface using x-ray diffraction. Beamline BL13XU is dedicated for surface/interface structural studies using diffraction and scattering techniques such as crystal-truncation-rod scattering, reflectivity, and standing waves. Intensities diffracted from a sample are extremely weak compared with that obtained from a thin film, of course a bulk crystal. Thus surface x-ray diffraction measurements need not only a powerful x-ray source like the SPring-8 standard undulator, but also proper control of a BL monochromator and mirror to make an incident-beam intensity maximum and stable. A plan for training at Cheiron School is to learn how to orient a sample and successively make surface x-ray measurements. We would like to quickly show how to align the beamline optics to tune incident x-rays desired as well.

9. BL14B2: BL14B2_TEXT
Building Up an Experimental Station Control Software
Yukito Furukawa (JASRI/SPring-8)

The aim of the course is to understand an experimental station and beamline controls and to aquire a skill for building up a simple experimental programs by using some scripting language. It contains scanning a monochromator, counting photons and displaying the results. To examine the program, students will measure X-ray absorption spectra of some metal foils.

10. BL17SU:
Evaluation of Soft X-ray Beamline
Haruhiko Ohashi and Yasunori Senba (JASRI/SPring-8)

Cancelled for Machine Trouble

Pump and Probe Technique for Picosecond Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction
Yoshihito Tanaka and Yoshiki Kohmura (RIKEN/SPring-8)

The pulsed nature of the synchrotron radiation and the synchronization technique between SR pulse and ultrashort laser pulse enable us to make pump and probe measurements with 40 ps time resolution. The time resolved x-ray diffraction experiments will be demonstrated for the lattice dynamics of a single semiconductor crystal. The course may help you with starting the picosecond time-resolved experiments at your stations for investigation on fast structural dynamics.

Making of Micro/Nano-beam with Fresnel Zone Plate Optics
Akihisa Takeuchi (JASRI/SPring-8)

The Fresnel zone plate (FZP) is a focusing/imaging optics widely used in x-ray region. The FZP for x-rays is fabricated by recent nano-technology, and sub-100 nm probe size has been achieved using FZP focusing optics and the third generation synchrotron radiation light sources. Unlike the conventional optical lens, use of FZP for x-rays is sometimes complicated optics. In the course, we will study, what is the characteristics of FZP, how the FZP works, how to make microprobe with FZP, and how to measure the probe size, etc, for deep understanding of x-ray fucusing/imaging optics. A demonstration of scanning microscopy is also planned.

Soft X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Measurement and the Related Techniques
Tetsuya Nakamura (JASRI/SPring-8)

BL25SU provides circularly polarized soft x-ray of photon-energy between 220 eV and 2000 eV. Periodical helicity switching (0.1 - 10Hz) using the twin helical undulators and high energy resolution of E/DE > 10,000 are the leading features of the beamline. The helicity switching technique gives great advantage to magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurement. Participants of the experiments at BL25SU during the Cheiron school will take part in soft x-ray MCD measurements. Following an introduction of the optical components and measurement apparatuses installed at the beamline, they will learn how we measure precise MCD spectra and the hysteresis loops. Beam properties such as size and stability will also be verified, since these are important performance characteristics of BL25SU. We believe that the planned course will provide a fruitful opportunity for participants interested in soft x-ray techniques and the study of magnetic materials.

Soft X-ray Photoemission and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy
Yusuke Tamenori and Takayuki Muro

Photoemission and photoabsorption spectroscopy using high-resolution soft x-rays will be experienced in this course. A hemispherical photoelectron analyzer is used for photoemission spectroscopy, and photoabsorption spectra will be measured by means of the total fluorescence yield method with an MCP detector. The participants will gain experience in sample transfer, sample manipulation inside a UHV chamber, and data acquisition.

X-ray Fluorescence Analysis using Microfocusing Optics
Yasuko Terada (JASRI/SPring-8)

BL37XU is designed for application to various X-ray fluorescence analyses. The beamline has two branches; one is SPring-8 standard undulator-beamline optics branch (Branch-A) and the other is high-energy branch (Branch-B). Major experimental techniques are -X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, TXRF, XRF holography and high-energy XRF analysis. The practice at BL37XU is how to measure micro-XRF of typical specimens, which covers alignment of X-ray focusing optics and adjustment of solid-state detector.

16. BL38B1: BL38B1_TEXT
Data Collection and S-SAD Phasing of Insulin Crystals
Kazuya Hasegawa, Seiki Baba, Teh Aik Hong (JASRI/SPring-8)

Phase problem is a major difficulty in protein crystallography. As a recent advancement, S-SAD phasing method has been proposed. It solves the problem by the anomalous effect of sulfur atoms involved in most protein samples. In this exercise, we plan to the data collection of insulin crystal and the determination of its structure. The alignment of the beamline and a sample mounting robot will also be introduced.


17. BL38B2: BL38B2_TEXT
Beam Diagnostics of the SPring-8 Storage Ring
Kazuhiro Tamura (JASRI/SPring-8)

Characteristics of synchrotron radiation (SR) are closely related to those of the source electron beam. For example, pulsed nature of SR is originated from bunched structure of the electron beam. Brilliance of SR is dominated by transverse size and angular divergence of the electron beam. This laboratory course is practice at the SPring-8 diagnostics beamline I (BL38B2), where SR form a bending magnet is exploited for diagnostics of the electron beam. The course will include measurement of bunched structure of the electron beam, bunch length and bunch spacing, with a visible light streak camera.


Handling of X-ray Polarization and Application to X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy
Naomi Kawamura and Motohiro Suzuki (JASRI/SPring-8)

X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is a useful tool to investigate magnetic properties because of an element specificity, electronic shell selectivity and angular-momentum sensitivity. In particular, unnecessary ultrahigh-vacuum in hard X-ray region is effective to measure the XMCD under multiple extreme conditions such as high-magnetic field, extreme low temperature, and high pressure. To measure XMCD spectra with high accuracy, a helicity-modulation technique has been developed at BL39XU. Although BL39XU is a hard X-ray beamline with horizontally linear polarization, circularly polarized X-rays are generated by using the diamond X-ray phase retarder (XPR). The helicities are alternated by changing the offset angle of the XPR. For high-accuracy XMCD measurement, it is necessary to optimize the tuning of the relation among the undulator, monochromator, and XPR precisely; that is, the undulator gap and the XPR condition must be adjusted according to the X-ray energy. On the other hand, the helicity-modulation technique requires a combination of fast switching of the helicity and a phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection system. This technique provides a dichroic signal of less than 0.01% and with a good signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, extremely high-quality XMCD spectra are obtained in a short acquisition time. In order to understand polarization control using XPR and the basis of the helicity-modulation method, the following steps are performed in this study.

1. Synchronous control of undulator gap, monochromator, and XPR
a) Undulator spectrum measurement by varying the gap value
b) Polarization measurement using a simple polarimeter
2. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurement:
comparison of helicity-modulation, helicity-reversal, and magnetic field-reversal methods
3. Element-specific hysteresis measurement using XMCD (optional)

Optimization of the beamline optics is achieved in step 1.The effectiveness of the helicity-modulation technique is established in step 2. Step 3 will illustrate the advantages of XMCD measurement using XPR.


19. BL40B2: BL40B2_TEXT
Instrumentation for Small-angle Scattering Experiments
Naoto Yagi (JASRI/SPring-8)

Small-angle scattering/diffraction experiments require sophisticated optics (monochromator, focusing mirror, slits) and a detector system. Examples at small-angle beamlines (BL40B2 and BL40XU) will be explained. Several typical specimens will be used to demonstrate how actual data collection is performed. Instrumentation for time-resolved experiments is also explained.

Microspectroscopy using Infrared Synchrotron Radiation
Taro Moriwaki (JASRI/SPring-8)

BL43IR provides highly brilliant infrared radiation from a large bending radius (39.3 m) bending magnet. The beamline is suitable for the microspectroscopy applications at the diffraction limit scale of approximately 10-100 micrometer depending on the wavelength. We will provide an opportunity to use the infrared microscope at the beamline of the practical training on adjustment of the optics, sample preparation, adjustment of the microscope and measurements.